Genetics plays a role in oral growth and malocclusion. The results of orthodontic treatments also rely highly on genetics. Knowing your genetic components influences the outcomes and enhances the orthodontist's ability to treat malocclusions successfully.
Genetics and skeletal malocclusions
Growth comes as a result of the environment and genetic factors. Tooth positioning and the number and size of teeth rely highly on heritability estimates of craniofacial skeletal structures. Studies have shown that skeletal malocclusions are influenced by genetics.
In some families, mandibular prognathism is said to have a multifactorial origin. There is a dominant inheritance, an example is the European noble families. Genetic factors are therefore said to be heterogeneous. This contributes to several anatomic changes in the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible. It is not surprising that the genetic linkage studies indicate the possible location of genetic loci influencing mandibular prognathism in several chromosomal locations.
Tooth development involves more than 200 genes. These genes are expressed during tooth development and mutations that are well known to cause arrested tooth development. Dental agenesis is the most common anomaly that is seen in humans. It is phenotypically and genetically a heterogeneous condition. The current knowledge of genes and the factors that are involved in tooth development proposes that different phenotypic forms are caused by different genes involving different molecular pathways that interact in the process.
In conclusion, genetics can cause many oral dysfunctions like tooth crowding and the ones mentioned above. Orthodontists should be aware of the role genetics play and the treatments administered accordingly. This kind of awareness is essential because it helps to segregate inherited malocclusions from the ones caused by environmental factors. This helps to diagnose, treat, and even prevent a malocclusion from passing on to future generations. The earlier the detection the easier the treatment and vice versa. Make your choice today and call us for more information.
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